Database Management Basics

Database Management Basics

Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to the business operations of an organization. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and application programs making changes as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged by unexpected failure. It is a component of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a wide range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is tables that arrange data according to some scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, that contain information about the data entities. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model, created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require changing certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables that are constructed from data that is generic to enhance performance.

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